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العمر : 28
عدد الرسائل : 47
البلد : cairo
الجامعة : the life
الكلية : science
الشعبة : physics
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/04/2009
نقاط : 15816

نصوص خطابات أينشتين لرئيس الولايات المتحده من أجل صنع القنبله الذريه

في الجمعة أبريل 10, 2009 8:45 pm
نصوص خطابين : متتابعين
هذا هو الخطاب الأول .....


Letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt about nuclear physicist Dr. Leo Szilard, 1945
112 Mercer Street
Princeton, New Jersey
March 25, 1945
The Honorable Franklin D. Roosevelt
The President of the United States
The White House
Washington, D.C.
Sir:
I am writing to you to introduce Dr. L[eo]. Szilard who proposes to
submit to you certain considerations and recommendations. Unusual
circumstances, which I shall describe further below, induce me to take
this action in spite of the fact that I do not know the substance of
the considerations and recommendations which Dr. Szilard proposes to
submit to you.
In the summer of 1939 Dr. Szilard put before me his views concerning
the potential importance of uranium for national defense. He was
greatly disturbed by the potentialities involved and anxious that the
United States Government be advised of them as soon as possible. Dr.
Szilard, who is one of the discoverers of the neutron emission of
uranium on which all present work on uranium is based, described to me
a specific system which he devised and which he thought would make it
possible to set up chain reactions in unseparated uranium in the
immediate future. Having known him for over twenty years, both for his
scientific work and personally, I have much confidence in his judgement
and it was on the basis of his judgement as well as my own that I took
the liberty to approach you in connection with this subject. You
responded to my letter dated August 2, 1939 by the appointment of a
committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Briggs and thus started the
Government's activity in this field.
The terms of secrecy under which Dr. Szilard is working at present do
not permit him to give me information about his work; however, I
understand that he now is greatly concerned about the lack of adequate
contact between scientists who are doing this work and members of your
Cabinet who are responsible for formulating policy. In the
circumstances I consider it my duty to give Dr. Szilard this
introduction and I wish to express the hope that you will be able to
give his presentation of the case your personal attention.
Very truly yours,
(A. Einstein)



الخطاب الثانى...
Letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt about the possible construction of nuclear bombs.
Old Grove Rd.
Nassau Point
Peconic, Long Island
August 2nd, 1939
F.D. Roosevelt
President of the United States
White House
Washington, D.C.
Sir:
Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been
communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element
uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the
immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen
seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the
part of the administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to
bring to your attention the following facts and recommendations:
In the course of the last four months it has been made probable --
through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in
America -- that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain
reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and
large quantities of new radium like elements would be generated. Now it
appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate
future.
This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and
it is conceivable -- though much less certain -- that extremely
powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of
this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well
destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory.
However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for
transportation by air.
The United States has only very poor [illegible] of uranium in moderate
quantities. There is some good ore in Canada and the former
Czechoslovakia, while the most important source of Uranium is Belgian
Congo.
In view of this situation you may think it desirable to have some
permanent contact maintained between the Administration and the group
of physicists working on chain reactions in America. One possible way
of achieving this might be for you to entrust with this task a person
who has your confidence and who could perhaps serve in an unofficial
capacity. His task might comprise the following:
a) To approach Government Departments, keep them informed of the
further development, and out forward recommendations for Government
action, giving particular attention to the problem of uranium ore for
the United States;
b) To speed up the experimental work, which is at present being carried
on within the limits of the budgets of University laboratories, by
providing funds, if such funds be required, through his contacts with
private persons who are willing to make a contribution for this cause,
and perhaps also by obtaining the co-operation of industrial
laboratories which have the necessary equipment.
I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from
the Czechoslovakian mines, which she has taken over. That she should
have taken such early action might perhaps be understood on the ground
that the son of the German Under-Secretary of State, Von Weishlicker
[sic], is attached to the Kaiser Wilheim Institute in Berlin where some
of the American work on uranium is now being repeated.
Yours very truly,
(Albert Einstein)
Source: Argonne National Laboratory







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